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General concepts relating Artemia

Artemia is a small crustacean living in brackish water and seawater environment. Artemia owns a rich nutritional content. Artemia is high concentrations of protein, amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals that are good for reproduction and making pigment process. Therefore, it is a favorable food in hatcheries and grow-out ornamental fish farms.
Artemia, on the other hand, can be used as a biological stuffed animal. It means that human will enter substance into Artemia’s body. After that, shrimp or fish will eat treated Artemia. The substance suffered into Artemia may be nutrients, drugs or desired active substances by soaking or feeding. 
General concepts relating Artemia


Artemia’s habitat is various. It can be found at several places in the world from in tropical, subtropical area to temperate climate area, in natural salt lakes or artificial salt fields. In nature, Artemia can survive at salinity of 35 ‰ or more. Nonetheless, Artemia can’t defend themselves or compete for food, they exist only in waters with salinity > 70 ‰ in which there are no Artemia predator existance. As a result of that, we only find Artemia in the ocean/ beach with high salinity. 
Besides, Artemia adaptability in the high saline environment contributes to creates an ecological barrier so as to protect Artemia’s populations in nature. However, Artemia will die if saturated salinity content in environment is over 250 ‰ due to physiological stress processes and disturbance of osmoregulation at too high salinity.

At extreme environmental conditions (salinity content in water is above 120 ‰), Artemia will produce eggs, also known as cysts, are metabolically inactive and can remain in total stasis in a long time. This feature helps Artemia survive in adverse conditions. Basing on this feature, human can take cysts, dry them and store in a several time. This is an important job in the manufacture of breeds of shrimp and fish. Artemia adoption is simple, and suitable for low-yield saline fields. They can use many different foods such as algae, organic humus, suspended matter, and so on.
• Artemia has an interested characteristic that it eats dirty food, but its habitat must be clean to produce many eggs. The food of Artemia is chicken manure. The chicken manure, notwishstanding, is not sprinkled directly to the Artemia pond. Instead, it will be stored in a separate pond to create algae. After a period of time, the algae are pumped slowly through the field to feed the Artemia.
• According to many farmers, Artemia reproduces quickly and continuously. It takes 10 – 15 days from stocking to produce eggs. After about 25 days, Artemia eggs float on the water surface, and farmer can use a scoop net to get them out. Depending on that process, farmer can harvest Artemia in the whole season. Artemia reproductive season lasts from December to June or July of the next year while February and March are 2 months when Artemia generates the highest number of eggs.
• After harvest, Artemia eggs are put into specialized ovens to dry about 7-8 hours. Then, eggs will be packed into boxes after screening.
 

Translator: Artemia LAVAR KIS

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